Let’s talk about R12 to R134a conversions.
Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems help them transfer heat and provide cooling. These are used in a closed-loop system, circulating through the compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator for efficient climate control. These substances absorb heat when they evaporate and release heat upon condensation.
Refrigerants make up an essential component, easing the modern-day lifestyle. However, the growing concern over the negative environmental impact of these substances is real. Efforts are being made to phase out dangerous refrigerants like R12 and replace these with more sustainable alternatives such as R134a.
However, retrofitting a unit from R12 to R134a refrigerant requires you to adjust the charge accordingly. Since R134a refrigerant has a lower volume than the R12 refrigerant, adjustments become crucial not only for commercial refrigeration units but also for repairing HVAC equipment and automobiles.
R12 to R134a Conversion Chart & Formula
Thankfully, there is an R12 to R134a conversion chart and formula available to ensure proper retrofitting. This blog quickly helps you understand the same. But first …
What Is R12?
R12 is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) that has been a commonly used refrigerant in air conditioning and refrigeration systems until it was phased out due to its harmful, ozone-depleting effects on the environment. The refrigerant is also known by its chemical name, dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2). Its production was banned in the mid-90s, and the use of this refrigerant was prohibited by 2010. Since then, R12 has been replaced by more environmentally friendly refrigerants such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).
What is R134a?
The R134a refrigerant is a more sustainable replacement for the R12 CFC product. R134a is also known by its chemical name, tetrafluoromethane (CF3CH2F). It is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) that is more environment-friendly and does not deplete the ozone layer. Furthermore, R134a is non-flammable and has better thermodynamic properties, making it more energy-efficient for commercial and residential automotive air conditioning and refrigeration systems. However, efforts are being made to phase out the R134a refrigerant as well and introduce better alternatives.
The R12 to R134a Charge Conversion Formula
When converting from R12 to R134a refrigerant, it is suggested to maintain a charge level between 75% and 85%. In cases where no conversion information is available, a simple formula can be used to compute the difference in charge level (charge specification in pounds).
So, to determine the appropriate R134a charge level, multiply the R12 charge specification by 0.9 and subtract 0.25 pounds from the result. This will give you an exact number of the R134a charge amount. Here is a quick way to help you get started with the precise formula:
R12 Charge Specification x 0.9) – 0.25 lbs. = R134a Charge Level
So, for instance, if the R12 charge specification is listed at 2 lbs., then the R134a charge level would be 2 lbs. x 0.9) – 0.25 lbs. = 1.55 lbs. This means an R12 charge level of 2 lbs. would convert to an R134a charge level of 1.55 lbs. Simple!
R12 to R134a Refrigerant Charge Conversion Charts
Now that you know how to calculate the charge levels with the above formula, it might prove helpful in the future. But what can you do when time is of the essence and you need an answer questions almost immediately? You certainly cannot sit and compute the figure, wasting your precious time. In that case, the following table will help you with quick conversions:
|R12 Charge Specs||R134a Charge Level|
|1 lb.||0.65 lbs.|
|2 lbs.||1.55 lbs.|
|3 lbs.||2.45 lbs.|
|4 lbs.||3.35 lbs.|
|5 lbs.||4.25 lbs.|
|6 lbs.||5.15 lbs.|
|7 lbs.||6.05 lbs.|
R12 to R134a Conversion Tables – In Pounds
It is important to remember that the equipment designed for R12 refrigerants may be somewhat undersized compared to the equipment built for R134a. Therefore, an R134a system will require a significantly bigger compressor and heat exchangers to perform the exact job as that of an R12 system. As a result, the system retrofitted from R12 to R134a might have a lower capacity (run longer) and may develop higher head pressures (due to insufficient condenser area).